A SECOND OPINION - by dr. Claire F Sullivan
Date: 12-03-2012 19:35:23

Subject: FW: Dr. Claire Sullivan - University of Maine - November 2011 - Gender Verification and Gender Policies in Elite Sport : Eligibility and ''Fair Play''.../

Dear Kristen,
Thank you for the many interesting mails you have been sending - things are really on the move.

The attached paper of November 2011 from Dr. Claire Sullivan has been especially interesting for me to read. In her paper she goes over the history of gender testing in detail, and obviously, I find it most satisfactory that all of the factual informations I have included in my paper of 2004: "The Major Medical Blunder of the 20th Century" are being confirmed one by one in her work, without any significant information added concerning the period prior to 2005.

The confirmation also includes my statement that it was the IOC´s Athletic Commission that called for the discontinuation of the IOC system of gender verification prior to the Olympic Games in Sydney 2000, however only on a trial basis, and that both the IOC and the IAAF reserved the right to test if any questionable case should arise (page 407).

The clause: "“gives the IOC Medical Commission the authority to conduct any necessary investigation in order to verify the gender of an Olympic participant, should that be judged desirable”,
as well as its counterpart in the IAAF rules, remained unchanged until late 2011 (when it was replaced by the even more undefined demand that an athlete has to be "eligible" et al - but that is another story).

On page 414 Dr. Sullivan writes: "Furthermore, the IAAF Council abandoned its existing Gender Verification Policy concerning the participation of athletes who have undergone male to female sex reassignment".

This is absolutely not correct, and no reference is offered.
The current rules concerning this can be found on the IAAF website:


Best regards,
Georg Facius

Journal  of   Sport & Social Issues


Gender Verification and Gender Policies in Elite Sport : Eligibility and "Fair  Play"

Claire F. Sullivan

Journal of Sport and Social Issues 2011 35: 400 originally published online 15

November 2011

The online version of this article can be found at:




Published by: ® SAGE

http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of:

Northeastern University's Center for the Study of Sport in Society


Sex-segregated sports require governing bodies to clearly and accurately place athletes in two categories, one labeled "men" and the other labeled "women." Sports governing bodies such as the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) used sex testing procedures to attempt to verify the sex of athletes competing in women's events. In 2004, the IOC introduced the Stockholm Consensus to regulate the inclusion of, primarily, male-to-female transsexual athletes, to compete at the Olympic Games. These governing bodies, and others, are dealing with society's basic categorization of humans and thus are entangled in attempts to scientifically and medically define sex. This article will focus on the history and implications of gender-verification testing and gender policy on notions of "fair play" and athlete eligibility.


gender verification, fair play, gender policy

The notion of what constitutes "fair play" is one of the fundamental questions con­cerning the future of sport in society. One contentious area that has recently called the notion of fair play into question involves gender verification and the development of gender policy in sport. Sex-segregated sports require sports governing bodies to clearly and accurately place athletes in two categories, one labeled "men" and the other labeled "women." These governing bodies have found themselves in the awkward-------

'University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA Corresponding Author:

Claire Sullivan, University of Maine, 5724 Dunn Hall, Orono, ME 04469, USA Email: claires@maine.edu